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Home > Learn > Fertility Treatments > >3 Symptoms Of Low AMH

3 Symptoms Of Low AMH

Nov 09, 23 9 min

Originally published 03/03/2022. Updated for accuracy and relevancy on 11/09/2023.

Having trouble with fertility? One fertility marker to keep in mind is  AMH. Read on to learn about the symptoms of low AMH and how to combat it.

By OBGYN and fertility expert Dr. Kenosha Gleaton

Fertility testing and hormone levels can give us some insight into fertility. While anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels don’t tell us all we need to know, they can be predictive of someone’s response to fertility treatments. Here’s what to know and what to look out for when it comes to your AMH levels. 

AMH Levels and Fertility

AMH is a hormone released by cells in the ovary during a woman’s reproductive years. A gradual increase in AMH levels occurs in girls from birth until about 25, where maximum levels are observed. After this peak, AMH levels gradually decline as the primordial follicle pool declines with age, becoming undetectable at menopause.

When and Why to Test AMH

AMH can be especially useful for women going through fertility testing and treatments as it is typically the earliest indicator of ovarian function. While it can’t tell us everything we need to know about fertility, AMH can help predict someone’s response to fertility treatment. 

When it comes to IVF, research shows that AMH levels correlate with the number of eggs retrieved after stimulation. [1] This tells us that AMH has some association with predicting live birth after IVF treatment, but its ability to accurately predict live birth is somewhat poor.

AMH can also tell us when to expect menopause. Research shows that AMH is very low or undetectable approximately five years before menopause. [2] 

There is no uniform timeline for how often AMH levels should be tested, but we do have a general idea. A team of doctors studied women undergoing IVF and performed repeat testing of AMH levels to determine how often significant changes occurred. The study concluded that quarterly AMH level assessments (≤1 per three months) may be beneficial for patients seeking fertility treatments for conveying additional diagnostic and potential prognostic assessments. [3] 

Symptoms of Low AMH

There are no specific symptoms that immediately signal low AMH levels, but there are three signs that may indicate a woman has low AMH. These include [4]:

  1. Short menstrual cycles
  2. Irregular menstrual periods
  3. Permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle (typically menopause or premature menopause)

Again, these symptoms are very general and may not be associated with AMH levels at all, and some women may have low AMH and none of these symptoms. If you notice any of these signs and are concerned about your ovarian reserve, bring them up for discussion with your OBGYN at your next visit. If you’re curious about your AMH, the best way to know your level is to get a test done. Use an at-home testing kit like our sister company Everlywell’s Ovarian Reserve Test to measure AMH levels, shop the Women’s Health Test to learn about other vital fertility hormones, or read up some more on fertility and pregnancy on the Natalist blog

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What Causes Low AMH?

For the most part, AMH levels are not impacted much by outside factors. However, there have been a few studies that have found potential links to AMH levels. 

  • AMH and birth control pills: No proven relationship exists between AMH and birth control, but some studies suggest that taking hormonal birth control pills may decrease AMH levels temporarily. [2] Luckily it was observed that these effects were reversed after discontinuation of the oral birth control pills. 
  • AMH and metformin: Another medication that could be impacting AMH levels is metformin, a drug used to treat type 2 diabetes due to its interactions with insulin in the body. Two studies observed the effects of metformin and AMH levels and concluded that when used to treat PCOS, metformin showed a decrease in AMH concentration. [5-6] 
  • AMH and diet: A cross-sectional study assessed linkages between diet and AMH levels in 200 adult women and found that a higher diet of fast foods and saturated fats was associated with lower AMH concentrations. [7] 
  • AMH and menstrual cycles: A cross-sectional study of over two thousand women found that those with irregular menstrual cycles have much lower age-specific AMH percentiles than those with regular menstrual cycles. [8] Another cross-sectional study of over 600 premenopausal women found that AMH concentrations are lower in women with an earlier age of menarche (the age of first menstrual period) and women older than 35. [9] 

Why Do AMH Levels Drop?

In general, a typical AMH level for a woman of reproductive age is between 1.0–4.0 ng/ml. For every woman, AMH levels will decrease with age as the primordial follicle pool declines (a normal part of aging), and there’s not much any of us can do about that, so it’s best not to stress about your level! [10]  Find out what a good AMH level is at every age. 

How to Increase AMH Levels

For those with low AMH and thyroid dysfunction, supplementation with the hormone LT4 may actually be beneficial in increasing AMH levels. A study aimed to determine whether levothyroxine (LT4) supplementation could increase ovarian function in women found that for those with Hashimoto’s, LT4 has significant effects. [11] At the end of the study, the AMH level in 35 patients with Hashimoto's disease increased following LT4 preconception supplementation. [11] 

Another small study assessed the effects of selenium and vitamin E supplementation in women with diminished ovarian reserve. [12] The results concluded that after 12 months of vitamin E and selenium supplementation, AMH as well as antral follicle count and mean ovarian volume was increased in women with OPOI (occult premature ovarian insufficiency). [12] 

The effects of vitamin D on AMH levels have also been studied, and the results are inconclusive. A meta-analysis found that supplementing vitamin D increased AMH levels for women without PCOS, but decreased AMH levels for women with PCOS. [13] Another study also concluded that AMH and vitamin D are likely independent of each other. [14] 

Diet, Nutrition, and AMH

As many of us know, a healthy diet is beneficial for many facets of our health. Multiple studies focused on the association between diet and AMH levels have found that a diet low in fast foods and saturated fats, and high in dairy, may help increase or maintain AMH levels in regularly menstruating women. [7,15] To treat low AMH concentrations, try adding in healthy fats, dairy, and carbohydrates, and steer clear of fast food and saturated fats. 

Supplement your fertility diet (including vitamin D, E, and selenium) with Prenatal Daily Packets. 

Many women ask what they can do to increase their AMH levels. The truth is, there are no definitively proven ways to increase your AMH levels, but there are ways to increase your chances of getting pregnant (like tracking your ovulation to time sex for conception and opting for fertility-friendly lube). 

Key Takeaways

  • AMH is often the earliest indicator of ovarian function and can predict someone’s response to fertility treatments
  • Studies show that testing your AMH once every three months should be often enough to measure any noticeable changes
  • There are no specific symptoms that point to low AMH, but irregular, short, and permanent cessation of menstrual cycles may be indicators of low AMH concentrations
  • Vitamin E, selenium, LT4, and vitamin D may be helpful in increasing AMH levels for certain populations
  • Maintaining a healthy diet is helpful for overall fertility and for maintaining AMH healthy levels. 


  1. Broekmans FJ, Kwee J, Hendriks DJ, Mol BW, Lambalk CB. A systematic review of tests predicting ovarian reserve and IVF outcome. Hum Reprod Update. 2006;12(6):685-718. doi:10.1093/humupd/dml034
  2. Kruszyńska A, Słowińska-Srzednicka J. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a good predictor of time of menopause. Prz Menopauzalny. 2017;16(2):47-50. doi:10.5114/pm.2017.68591
  3. Gingold, Julian & Sekhon, Lucky & Whitehouse, Michael & Lee, Joseph & Rodriguez-Purata, Jorge & Copperman, Alan. (2016). What Is the Ideal Interval for Re-Testing Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Levels in an Infertility Population? [25G]. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 127. 65S-66S. 10.1097/ 
  4. Guzel Y, Aba YA, Yakin K, Oktem O. Menstrual cycle characteristics of young females with occult primary ovarian insufficiency at initial diagnosis and one-year follow-up with serum amh level and antral follicle count. PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0188334. Published 2017 Nov 27. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0188334
  5. Foroozanfard F, Samimi M, Almadani KH, Sehat M. Effect of metformin on the anti-Müllerian hormone level in infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Electron Physician. 2017;9(12):5969-5973. Published 2017 Dec 25. doi:10.19082/5969
  6. Johnson NP. Metformin use in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Ann Transl Med. 2014;2(6):56. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2014.04.15
  7. KaboodMehri R, Sorouri ZZ, Sharami SH, Bagheri SE, Yazdipaz S, Doaei S. The association between the levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and dietary intake in Iranian women. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2021;304(3):687-694. doi:10.1007/s00404-021-06098-4
  8. Dólleman M, Verschuren WM, Eijkemans MJ, et al. Reproductive and lifestyle determinants of anti-Müllerian hormone in a large population-based study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(5):2106-2115. doi:10.1210/jc.2012-3995
  9. Jung S, Allen N, Arslan AA, et al. Demographic, lifestyle, and other factors in relation to antimüllerian hormone levels in mostly late premenopausal women. Fertil Steril. 2017;107(4):1012-1022.e2. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2017.02.105
  10. Barbakadze L, Kristesashvili J, Khonelidze N, Tsagareishvili G. The correlations of anti-mullerian hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and antral follicle count in different age groups of infertile women. Int J Fertil Steril. 2015;8(4):393-398. doi:10.22074/ijfs.2015.4179
  11. Kuroda M, Kuroda K, Segawa T, et al. Levothyroxine supplementation improves serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels in infertile patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2018;44(4):739-746. doi:10.1111/jog.13554
  12. Safiyeh FD, Mojgan M, Parviz S, Sakineh MA, Behnaz SO. The effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count in infertile women with occult premature ovarian insufficiency: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Complement Ther Med. 2021;56:102533. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102533
  13. Moridi I, Chen A, Tal O, Tal R. The Association between Vitamin D and Anti-Müllerian Hormone: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2020;12(6):1567. Published 2020 May 28. doi:10.3390/nu12061567
  14. Wong HYQ, Li HWR, Lam KSL, et al. Independent association of serum vitamin D with anti-Mullerian hormone levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2018;89(5):634-641. doi:10.1111/cen.13816
  15. Moslehi N, Mirmiran P, Azizi F, Tehrani FR. Do dietary intakes influence the rate of decline in anti-Mullerian hormone among eumenorrheic women? A population-based prospective investigation. Nutr J. 2019;18(1):83. Published 2019 Dec 2. doi:10.1186/s12937-019-0508-5

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